The land of Afghanistan became an independent political unit in the center of Asia in 1747 (1126 LHY), when disputes and disagreements between two European powers, England and France, were at the highest point.
The founder of Afghanistan government was Ahmadshah Abdalli (Durrani). European colonizers, particularly England, had penetrated into Indian subcontinent in the time, and East India Company was established on the west bank of India during the kingdom of Jahangir in India in 1600.
Afghanistan was regarded as a barrier for the English development in India until the kingdom of Zaman Shah, Ahamd Shah Durrani's grandson, therefore, the English put Zaman Shah's government under pressure, internally and externally, with the application of Durrani's princesses competitions, inflaming the internal war, so they could change Afghanistan into a very weak and fairly small country, reinforcing Feudal administration system, weakening the central government until 1818.
The English Invasion
The English invaded to Afghanistan following weakening it, in November 1838 and nominated Shah Shoja, one of Ahamad Shah's grandsons, as the king of Afghanistan in Kabul in 1838. Muslim people of Afghanistan revolutionized against the occupiers in 1840 and expelled them out of Kabul by 1842 after a short time. Amir Dust Mohammad Khan, from Mohammadzai tribe, who was the ruler of Afghanistan during the invasion of the English to Afghanistan but escaped and went to Bukhara without any resistance, returned to the throne for the second time due to the uprising.
During the period of Amir Shir Ali Khan's government, the English spread their army to Afghanistan one again, on the pretext that he had accepted a Russian delegation and signed a treaty with them. Shir Ali Khan like his father escaped and the English signed Gandomak agreement, by which some parts of Afghanistan territory were separated, with Mohammad Yaghob Khan, the son and successor of Shir Ali Khan on 30, Maym1879.
People rose in Kabul against the English occupiers once more, killing Kio Nari the English ambassador and his political delegation. The second Anglo-Afghan war commenced in this way, eventually, the English were defeated apparently, but Amir Abdu-l-Rahman, the English political ally, took the power. He consolidated the political unity of Afghanistan under the current framework of borders within 21years during his government; however, having signed an agreement "Divarand" with the English, he ignored the Afghan lands which were under their control, and he did not gain the independence of Afghanistan. After Amir Abdu-l-Rahman, his son, Habibulla Khan was his successor, remaining loyal to his father's commitments to the English.
Declaration of Independence
Habibulla Khan was assassinated during a coup which was indirectly led by his son, Amanulla Khan who became the king. He declared the independence of Afghanistan and the third Anglo-Afghan war initiated in May 1919 which is famous as the independence war. Consequently, they negotiated and the English recognized the independence of Afghanistan with current borders for the treaty on 8th of August, 1919 (28th Asad, 1298).
Amanulla Khan recognized the ruling Communist regime in USSR after he gained the power, forwarding a letter to Lenin once more to glorify his government. Former Soviet Union was the first country to recognize the independence of Afghanistan signing the first so-called impartiality accord and lack of invasion agreement to Amanulla Khan State on 28th February, 1921. This treaty was regarded as a turning point between the relationships of USSR and Afghanistan by the communists later on. Although, the Russians violated the agreement by occupation of two Muslims settled cities of Bukhara and Khiveh, but the government did not show any objection.
Manulla Khan, who was contemporary with Ata Turk and Reza Shah, fascinated to the west civilization aspects, perpetrating efforts which were inconsistent with Islamic and National mores. Inducing women to give up Hejab, obligatory attiring of European clothes, lifting hat instead of saying hello for daily greeting, protest against religious scholars and other efforts that public revolts broke out and Amanulla Khan rule overthrow.
Habibulla Kalakani, known as Bache Saghaw, was Aamnulla Khan successor, and ruled only for nine months. Nader Shah Khan, Zaher Shah's father, who was Afghanistan ambassador in France during Amanullah Khan's government, entered India, which was under the dominance of the English in the time, with his brothers. They came into Afghanistan through Paktia province border in west of the country with the assistance of Pakistani Pashtons and English officials, influencing and preparing Pashtons, they overthrew Habibulla Kalakani's reign.
Nader Shah, after four years, was assassinated by a college student named Abdull Khalegh who was Gholam Nabi Charkhi's supporter, executed by Nader Khan.
Mohammad Zaher Shah's period of Rule
Mohammad Zaher, Nader Shah's son, inherited the throne, since he was too young his uncle, Mohammad Hashem Khan being the chancellor, took the power. Hashem Khan expanded his ties with the west; friendship accord was signed between Afghanistan and the United States in April, 1936 (Farvardin 1315) at the earliest time. Impartial and lack of invasion agreement between Afghanistan and USSR was renewed for third time on 7th Shahrivar (Sonbolla) in the same year.
In 1947(1326LHY), when Pakistan was established, Zaher Shah proclaimed self-government of Pashtons residing on the other side of Divrand border inside Pakistan territory which caused conflicts between Zaher Shah and his uncle, Mohammad Hashem Khan. He was put aside from chancellery for his opposition to Pashtonestan issue, and his brother, Shah Mahmood Khan, took his position. Shah Mahmood Khan also claimed Pakistani Pashons autonomy led the ties of two counties into tension resulting to frontier clashes between Afghanistan and Pakistan, and Pakistani forces bombarded Afghanistan border regions.
The limited press democracy which was announced during Shah Mahmood Khan Reign paved the ground for the growth of leftist political and Communist groups.Vish Zalmian (Vigilant Youth), Khalgh and Watan are the groups which were formed within these periods. Noor Mohammad Tarehki was the first head of Communist regime and a member of Vish Zalmian group. Khalagh and Watan groups were ruled by Dr. Mahamoodi and Mir Gholam Mohammad Ghobar respectively. A political aggregation called (Students union) was formed in Kabul University in which the Communists especially Babrak Karmal and Hassan Shargh were carrying the significant role.
During Shah Mahmood Khan's chancellery, his nephew, Sardar Mohammad Davood Khan was taking actions against him, cooperating with leftist groups. He, desired or undesired, acted as a center of pressure against the monarchy in order to prevent Afghanistan from getting closer to the west. Moreover, conflicts with the monarchy regime came out in open-minded classes of people outside the king's palace which were crashed seriously, but the leftist continued their activities against Shah Mahmood Khan.
The first public demonstration led by Karmal and other leftists in objection to Mahmoodi and Ghobar's defeat in eight round of National Council election on 31st, Hamal(Farvardin) 1331 (19th,Apri,1952) took place in Kabul, resulted to Ghobar, Mahmoodi and some others' arrest. Eventually, Shah Mahmood Khan was taken away form chancellery and Sardar Mohammad Davood Khan took his place.
When Mohammad Davood took the control, political suffocation in the society was obvious and relative speech and press freedom was banned, however, no one prevented the growth and organization of Communist and leftist groups.
In his first radio declaration, Davood posed the question of Pashtonistan, which obviously seemed to have been subsided, and asked for its independence once more. Consequently, the cold war between Pakistan and Afghanistan went critical, ended to border clashes between the two countries. Pakistan closed down the commodity transportation path to Afghanistan; in the meanwhile, the Russians signed a transportation agreement with Afghanistan government, making foreign trades of Afghanistan dependant to Russia in April 1955. On 15th December, 1956, Bulgalin and Khroshchove two leaders of Kremlin entered Kabul, supporting the position of Afghanistan for Pashtonistan issue and provided Davood Khan Government with $2 million loan. The five year economic program of Afghanistan was put into action under the supervision of Russian experts with reliance upon Russia's aids.
Russia's inordinate control of Afghanistan's economic, military and politics made Zaher Shah improve the relations with Pakistan and United States to keep a balance with the Afghanistan relationships, for this reason, he did not propound the issue of Pashtonistan any more with intercession of Iranian King. The United States declared its willingness to cooperate with Afghanistan by designation of one million and six hundred dollars ($1600000) in 1958(1336LHY) to inaugurate Kabul University. In spite of committing these efforts to improve Afghanistan ties with Pakistan and United States, once more Mohammad Davood Khan posed the question of Pashtonistan in 1962(1340LHY), and the relations between the two countries were disturbed. At the end, internal conflicts and rivalries of the monarch family plus social and political disagreements made Davood Khan resign from the chancellery.
After Davood Khan, per direction of Zaher Shah Dr. Mohammad Yusef, Mohammad Hashem Meivand Val, Noor Ahmad Etemadi, Dr. Abdul Zaher and Mohammad Musa Shafigh established cabinet. In 1964 (1342LHY) during Dr.Yusef's chancellery, as the King ordered new constitution was compiled with insertion of the press freedom and political activities.On3rdAban 1344 (1966) there was a march in Kabul applying the new constitution, in which the Communists had remarkable role.
The demonstrators gathered around the parliament and wanted to take part in the meeting of vote of confidence for the cabinet, therefore, the security forces scattered the population and one person was killed during the clashes. Later on the Communists praised that day as "3rd of Aghrab" every year.
After the 3rd of Aghrab, Dr. Yusef resigned and Mohammad Hashem Meivand Val took the responsibility of forming the cabinet instead of him. The Communists stimulated the pupils and students to continue their demonstrations in Kabul and Meivand Val resigned as well due to his illness. Noor Ahmad Etemadi succeeded Meivand Val, but the demonstrations and convulsions went on in Kabul University in his time and the country's economic situation got critical because of drought.
Etemadi was not successful in solving economical and social crises and left the rule. Dr. Abudul Zaher appointed to inspect the cabinet without success he also resigned. After all, Mohammad Musa Shafigh was nominated as the Chancellor of Afghanistan. Internal crisis smoothed in his period, he tried to improve the relationships with the west and neighboring counties, so that the question of Hirvand water which was under the discussion between Iran and Afghanistan was solved with the journey of Abbas Hoveida, prime minister of Iran, to Kabul which irritated the Communists and extremist Nationalists.
Davood Khan's coup and Republic establishment
Not completely one year following Musa Shafigh's reign, Mohammad Davood Khan, with a military coup, assisted by the Communists on 26th Saratan(Tir) 1352(July 16,1973), overthrew the monarchy regime and announced a republic government instead. At first, the Communists from Parcham wing of Khalgh Democratic party outnumbered in Davood Khan's cabinet.
At the commencement of Davood Khan's presidency a great number of people who were against USSR and pro-Moscow Communists in Afghanistan were repressed, the symbol of Afghanistan flag changed, altar and pulpit slogans were replaced with the slogan of an eagle, border designation between Pakistan and Afghanistan was brought into discussion once more, Afghanistan Foreign Minister declared the invalidity of border line between the two countries in an interview. These kinds of movements in Mohammad Davood's administration stimulated the objections of many inside and outside Afghanistan to an extent that Pakistan and internal political parties initiated actions so as to vanish his government. Several coups were planned for the reason, however, detected and annihilated. The first obvious military coup took place on 1st Asad (Mordad) 1354(July23,1975) by the followers of Ekhvanu-al-Muslemin Movement led by Golbodin Hekmatyar in Panjsher, Laghman and Lugar which was hold back severely.
The extremisms and ever-increasing demands of Mohammad Davood's Communists friends made their relations dark, as a result, Davood Khan started to purify his cabinet from the Communists. Under such circumstances, Davood inclined toward the West, traveling to Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Turkey and Iran. During the last days of his rule, he arrested the summits of the two wings of Communist Party (Khalgh and Parcham) on the pretext of conspiracy against his government to commit them trial. However, the Communists did not provide him with the time, on 7th Sawr(Ordibehesht) 1357( April 27, 1978), they raised a bloody coup and consequently, Davood and his family members were killed and his regime was removed.
The communists took the power in Kabul and Noor Mohammad Tarehki, leader of Khalgh wing, was appointed as the head of the government, chancellor, general secretary of Khalgh Democratic Party, head of revolutionary council and deputy of the chancellor. Tarehki regime started cruel and merciless struggles against Islam, Muslim nation of Afghanistan and all counter-USSR, many people, spiritualists, university professors, university students and scientists were martyred. On the other hand, the internal conflicts of the two wings of the party, Khalgh led by Tarehki and Parcham led by Karmal, who had made a coalition under the pressure of Russians to overthrow Davood Khan's regime, got severe again, Karmal and his followers were exiled first and then committed in trial for conspiracy against Tarehki regime.
Afghanistan Muslim nation's opposition to Communists regime and Communists internal conflicts made Russia take necessary preventing measures to maintain their interests and penetration in Afghanistan. Thus, they invited Tarehki and Hafizull Amin to Moscow and signed a treaty with them on December 5, 1978(14th Ghows, 1357) to make grounds ready for military interference. According to the fourth article of the mentioned treaty, Russians could take military actions in Afghanistan.
Public uprising and USSR Assault
Some months after Tarehki's regime, Afghanistan Muslim nation rose in different parts of the country. The most important uprisings were 24th of Hut (Esfand) 1357 uprising and Chendavul uprising in Saratan(Tir) 1358 in Kabul. Thousands of people were martyred during these uprisings. Communist Regime went under terrible situation due to public rises. Tarehkin and Hafizull Amin were competing for the power in spite of disagreements of Khagh and Parcham wings. Russians tried to overturn Hafizulla Amin to support Tarehki, however, Amin succeeded to murder Tarehki and keep the power in his hands. The relations between Amin and Russians got critical but apparently continued their supports. In the meanwhile, Pakistan and the United States did not pay attention to Amin's green lights leaving him alone.
During Hafizulla Amin time Afghanistan Muslim armed uprisings expanded and most part of Afghanistan territory was taken out of Communists control. Under such conditions and in order to prevent the collapse of Communist Regime, Russians invaded and occupied Afghanistan on 6th Jady(Esfand) 1358, killing Hafizulla Amin, they brought Karmal to Afghanistan, who succeeded Hafizulla Amin and nominated as the head of the protégé regime in Kabul and the general secretary of Khalgh Democratic Party.
Afghanistan Muslim people rose nationwide following the invasion of USSR red army. In Kabul on 3rd Hut (Esfand) 1358, they poured onto the streets calling out mottoes" Allah u Akbar, Down with USSR" but were fired brutally and mercilessly from earth and air by the Communists, martyring hundreds of people. Afghanistan occupation by USSR was condemned United Nations, United Nations Security Council and other international organizations and societies. The war being severe, Russians and their protégé government used a series of social methods such as establishment of Padar Vatan National Front, Islamic Shoon (status) Ministry, holding ethnic and tribal assemblies, declaration of National Reconciliation and etc...in spite of application of various military tactics like "terror and panic" and chemical weapons to defeat the Islamic defiance, however, none of these actions could strengthen the trembling bases of the protégé regime.
Since Russians and their protégé government in Kabul were not successful in suppressing Islamic resistance, Russians got serious in indirect Geneva negotiations between Pakistan and Kabul regime on 25/3/1361 under supervision of United Nations in order to provide rather honorable way of their expel out of Afghanistan. Russians become more serious in their decision after Mikhail Gorbachev took the power in former Soviet Union; in early 1364 Babrak Karmal is replaced by Dr. Najibullah, head of KHAD (Governmental Security Services Organization), bringing National Reconciliation issue into discussion severely.
To this end, international negotiations in Geneva started and, finally after six years and eleven rounds of meeting, Pakistan, Najibulla's regime, United States and Former Soviet Union signed an agreement with fourteen articles on 25/1/1367 as guarantors. According to fourth article of this agreement, USSR pledged to take its forces out of Afghanistan.
Withdrawal of Soviet Forces
The withdrawal of Soviet Forces commenced from Jalal Abad in the east of Afghanistan on 25th Sawor(Ordibehesht) 1367and after nearly nine months ended on 17th Dalve(Bahman) of the same year.
A temporary sevenfold union of Mujahedin government led by engineer Ahmad Shah Masood ,was formed in Islamabad under the force of Pakistani officials contemporary with withdrawal of Soviet Forces from Afghanistan. In Hut (Esfand) 1367, Mujahedin advisory council supervised by Saudi Arabians and Pakistanis was established in Ravel Pendi, in which Sebghatollah Mojaddadi was appointed as the head of the temporary government. On 15th Hut 1368, General Shahnavaz Tannai, Defense minister of Najib's government, raised a coup against him but was defeated. The participants in the coup had kept in touch with Pakistan and Islamic Party.
Communist Regime Collapse
The internal conflicts increased in Kabul regime in different wings of Watan Party communicated wit different Mojaheddin Parties. Karmal's supporters put Dr, Najib under pressure and released Mazar Sharif city and north Part of the country from his control. Dr, Najib had announced his readiness to resign so as to transfer power to a temporary government after the collapse of Mazar Sharif and prior to Kabul collapse, but Karmal's supporters in combination with some Jehadi groups did not allow him the time, Dr. Najib and his family were arrested by his opponent in Watan Party, collapsing Communist regime on 5th Sawor (orbibehesht) 1371.
On 4th Sawor (ordibehesht) 1371, Mojahedeen government was formed, principally on a ratified law of six leaders of heptad's union, Nawaz Sharif, Pakistan prime minister and Saudi Arabia's envoy in Pishawar, selecting Sebghatullah Mojaddadi as the head of Afghanistan Islamic Government for two months. Mojaddadi left power in due time and Rabani whose period of presidency was four months took the power and stayed on the position until the collapse of Kabul by Taliban and the collapse of Taliban in 1381.
Commencement of internal Clashes
The clashes between Ahmad Shah Masood,(two commanders from Parcham Wing) General Dustom and Generla Momen's forces with Islamic Party and Khalgh wing of Communist Regime started after 24 hours of Communist Regime Collapse. Finally, Islamic Party and Khlagh's forces were expelled out of Kabul city.
On 12th Khordad, 1371, the fight between Islamic Union of Sayyaf and Islamic Unity Party began; Ahmad Shah Masood's forces (state forces) supported Sayyaf's forces. In Jady(Day) 1371, Rabani's government established a council called "Shorayeh Ahleh Hal va Aghd). The members of the council who were supporters of Rabani's government chose him as the head of Afghanistan state for two years. On 23rd Esfand, 1371, Common forces of Nezar Council led by Ahmad Shah Masood and Sayyaf Islamic Union attacked to Afshar and Chendawol areas, Shiites residential areas, led to genocide, trespassing and plunder. As a result of this invasion nearly five thousands Shiite families lost their lives and displaced.
Military involvements between Islamic Party and Rabani's government and sometimes between Rabani's government and Islamic Unity Party continued until a peace accord was signed amid quarrelling Jehadi groups' leaders in Islam Abad in Hut (Esfand) 1371
Taliban Group Appearance
Afghanistan nation, especially Kabul inhabitants, were suffering from the war between the forces of Rabin's government and the opponents coordinator council, that Taliban came into existence by attacking to the border town of Spinboldak in the south of Afghanistan on 22/7/1373. this group could quickly conquer Kandahar, Qazni and northern areas of Afghanistan up to Maidan Shahr near Kabul, Taliban groups who were assisted by Rabani's government at the beginning, could take the control of Chahar Asiyab, the headquarter of Hekmatyar in Dalve(Bahman0 1373, after the collapse of Chahar Asiyab, the west region of Kabul where was controlled by Shiites forces of Unity Party came under fire from any sides by Ahamad Shah Masood, Sayyaf and Taliban's forces, finally Mazari was arrested by the Taliban.
Clashed between Ahmad Shah Masood's forces and Taliban began following the suppression of Islamic Party and Islamic Unity Party. Masood's forces could expel Taliban from the west of Kabul and Chahar Asiyab and save the city out of their rifle range. Ahmad Shah Masood's forces recommenced their clashes with Islamic Party in Sorobi in the west of Kabul as well as Islamic Unity Party in Bamiyan. Under such conditions Ismaeel Khan, Herat governor, got involved in war with Taliban in South-west area. Taliban were defeated during the first attack and retreated, but it was the second time that they advanced to Herat fast and controlled the whole South-west area and Herat in Sonboleh( Shahrivar) 1374, at the time Bamiyan fell in the hand of Unity Party( Khalili's wing). Rabani's government, who insisted on military solution like Taliban, changed their mind after the collapse of Herat ad Bamiyan, turning to the way of negotiation and talks with the opponents, Islamic Party of Hekmatyar joined to Rabani's government in 1375 as the result of the talks. However, the join of Islamic Party to Rabani's government not only did not balance the number of forces for the benefit of government, but also paved the grounds for Taliban's quick success.
Eventually, in Sonbolleh (shahrivar) 1375, Kabul was under the dominance of Taliban without any resistance and they moved forward to Salang passageway and the entrance of Panjshir in the north of Kabul. Anti-Taliban groups felt the real danger severely after the collapse of Kabul. Therefore, three groups from the three dominant nationalities in Afghanistan set up a council called "Afghanistan Defense High Council", whose members were Islamic Society led by Borhanodin Rabani, National movement led by Dostam and Islamic Unity Party led by Khalili. The formation of this council raised the spirits of anti-Taliban groups a bit and they cooperated more. In Mizan (Mehr) Masood's forces took the control of Jabal-o-Seraj sending Taliban out of there. People in the North areas of Kabul rose against Taliban killing their forces, capturing more than 600 forces of Taliban. Once more, Taliban took the control of Salang and Ghorban alleys in Kapisa and Parvan provinces (north of Kabul) in Dalve( Bahman) 1375.
Taliban Success and Failure in North
Important changes took place politically and militarily in Afghanistan in 1376. One of the commanders in incumbents of National Movement, General Abdul Malek, joined Taliban, and North areas of Afghanistan from Badgheis to Takhar were dominated by Taliban. They settled their forces in Mazar Sharif, beginning to filter the opponents. People in Mazar Sharif, who were mainly Shiites rose against Taliban, Abdul Malek who did not receive Taliban's kindness began fighting with them. Consequently, three thousands of Taliban forces were killed and a great number of their forces were captured by different groups in north areas of Afghanistan, when Taliban were defeated in Mazar Sharif, Ahmad Shah Masood's forces conquered Bagram important military airport and the center of Parvan Province, Charikar, moving forward to Kabul. This advance movement was so fast and unexpected and it was thought that Kabul city would fall; however, Masood's forces were blocked 20 miles away from the city.
The opponents gathered under the designation of "National and Islamic United Front of Afghanistan" nominating Mazar Sharif as the temporary capital of Rabani's government after Taliban's collapse in north areas of Afghanistan. The new cabinet included Ghfurzai as the head, Unity Party (Khalili's wing) as the Ministry of Interior and National Movement as the Foreign Minsitry. It was not long that Ghafurzai along with some high officials of Islamic Unity party and Islamic Society were killed for a plane crash in Bamiyan.
Once again, Taliban combined their dispersed forces in Ghunduz with the assistance of Bashir Baghlani, a commander of Islamic Party of Hekmatyar in Sonbolleh( Shahrivar)1371, conquered Kholm and Sheberghan strait, moved toward Mazar Sharif controlled the airport of the city, settled on the suburbs of Mazar Sharif city.
Taliban's attacks to Mazar were defended by Shiites people from any groups and they had to go out of the city. General Dostom who had escaped to Turkey came back to Afghanistan via Uzbekistan, playing an important role to defeat Taliban in Hairatan border town, Balkh and Chamtal. It is to be noted that Dostom had sought asylum in Turkey after Malek's conspiracy with Taliban and Mazar Sharif's collapse.
Dostom's return aggravated the conflicts between National Movement and United Front, contrary to his commitments and acceptance of the situation, according to which General Malek was the leader of National Movement and Foreign Minster, Dostom started to clear Abdul Malek's supporters, dominated his areas of control. Dostom's another problem was Mohaghegh, interior minister, who controlled Mazar more than others. Dostom killed Mohaghegh's forces in Hairatan border town and tried to dominate Mazar Sharif, however, he was not successful. Taliban's envoy who had traveled to USA and Europe to achieve international recognition faced with problems due to lack of their military success. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the United States announced that Afghanistan's embassy had been closed in Washington to avoid the dominance of Taliban, nevertheless, American diplomats were in touch with Taliban in a way that an American company " Unical" established its office in Kandahar to follow the transition of oil and gas from central Asia via Afghanistan.
Hazarajat and north area collapse
In Hamal ( Farvardin) 1377 joint efforts from UN and Islamic Conference Organization began to solve Afghanistan's crisis. Akhzar Ebrahimi, special envoy of UN general Secretary, traveled to Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran and central Asia, talking with all sides involved in Afghanistan's issue. Taliban did not take part in a meeting which was supposed to be held in Turkmenistan with opponents' presence, however, with pressures from Pakistan and Saudi Ariba they got ready to negotiate with United Front envoys in Islam Abad under supervision of UN and ICO. Finally, the first round of talks between Taliban and United Front envoys began on 6/2/1377 in Islam Abad and ended without any results after six days.
While united front members were suffering from civil war, and general Dostom's operation against Abdul Malek which ended up to his defeat, made National Movement do weak, thus, Taliban started their heavy attacks in Badgheis, in the west of Afghanistan, Maimanah, the center of Fariyab province collapsed in 21/4/1377 and Taliban continued their way to Mazar Sharif.
Mazar Sharif collapsed on 17/5/1377 and Taliban took the control of Polkhomry, Talighan and other areas. Immediately, following the collapse of Mazar Sharif, Iranian consulate was invaded and ten Iranian diplomats were murdered, Taliban arrested 35 Iranian drivers but declared to be unaware of Iranian diplomats.
Taking Iranian citizens as hostage, created a severe crisis between Iran and Pakistan, since Pakistan, as pro-Taliban has accepted the responsibility of Iranian diplomats but did not fulfill their promise.
While Taliban were condemned world widely and Islamic Revolution Guard Corps were doing military maneuvers near Afghanistan border, Taliban attacked to Hazarajat, conquering Bamiyan, continued to collapse other Shiite residential areas in Maidan, Ghazni and Uruzgan provinces. On the other hand, Pakistan endeavored that Taliban should be officially recognized by UN. On the contrary to Pakistan and Taliban expectation, a global assembly came about against this group in a way that, UN not only did not recognize Taliban government, but also Saudi Arabia expelled Taliban ambassador from its territory and recalled their minister from Kabul.
Eventually, Taliban under international pressures and under Islamic Republic of Iran's political and military measures, were forced to deliver the bodies of Iranian diplomats in two stages and release Iranian prisoners gradually.
Taliban fall and Hamed Karzai's government
The leader of Alqaeda group, Osama Ben Ladan's presence in Afghanistan faced Taliban with universal community. Ben Ladan was accused of planning bomb explosion in US embassies in Africa in 1998 and terrorist attack on 11 September,2001 in New York. Taliban's support of Osama Ben Ladan made USA invade Afghanistan.
On 10/7/1380, USA and British heavy air raids and missile attacks to Afghanistan started and Kabul was set free on 23/8/1380. Rabani's government settled in Kabul for the second time.
On 6/9/1380, Bon conference in Germany was established under supervision of UN which lasted for 14 days. On the basis of Bon agreement new temporary government of Afghanistan led by Hamed Karzai was formed and on 1/10/1380 took the power in Kabul.
On 21/3/1381 an emergency Loy Girga was held in Kabul according to Bon agreement and Karzia's transitional government was appointed for 2 years. A Loy Girga for constitution was held on 23/9/1383 and after 22 days of talks and discussion the new constitution was approved under the pressure of foreign supervisors.
On 18/7/1383, a presidential election was held which resulted to Afghanistan permanent government led by Hamed Karzai for 5 years.
Local commanders controlled various provinces in Afgahnistan at the beginning of Taliban collapse and Kabul government did not have considerable dominance over provinces. However, the situation improved gradually with the aid of International Security Assistance Forces (ISAF) and a coalition led by USA, and the government could expand its control over the provinces. In spite of that, Taliban militants have been confronting Kabul government and NATO forces who are under the leadership of America and considered as invaders, in Southern and Eastern provinces where they have more influence and expanding their operations. Karzai's government and NATO forces led by USA have been unable to establish security in Afghanistan so far.
Since overthrown of Taliban and setting of foreign forces in Afghanistan, trade of narcotic drugs has been flourishing and making this country as the principle producer of opium in the world, it is said that 95% of global narcotics are produced in this country and it also allocates 60% of economic income of Afghanistan.