Publish dateTuesday 18 December 2007 - 09:14
Story Code : 35000
Landlocked and mountainous, Afghanistan has suffered from such chronic instability and conflict during its modern history that its economy and infrastructure are in ruins, and many of its people are refugees
  Afghanistan, at first glance Landlocked and mountainous, Afghanistan has suffered from such chronic instability and conflict during its modern history that its economy and infrastructure are in ruins, and many of its people are refugees.
Afghanistan new government which was formed by America’s invasion and international support faces the challenges of providing security, of extending its authority beyond the capital and of forging national unity.
Its strategic position sandwiched between the Middle East, Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent means that Afghanistan has long been fought over by foreign powers and internal plunderers- despite its rugged and forbidding terrain.   History Overview till 2007(1386 LHY) Afghanistan territory was a political and cultural unique together with Iran, central Asia and Caucasia during BCs until 2nd century.
From 2nd century till Islam emergence in the territory of present-day Afghanistan, feudal system governed it (except Kushanis and Yaftilis eras). From Islam advent until Ibdally era, Afghanistan territory was considered first a part of Islam caliphate, as like as other vast Khorasan zones which was governed by local Emirs in feudalism system. In next stage it was a political and cultural unity, such that developed to Delhi in Nader-Shah Afshar era. 
Independent Afghanistan country was established by Ahmad Shah Ibdalli in 1747(1126 LHY). After the fall of Zaman-shah government in 1801, British Empire, who had commanded in India subcontinent, began its interference campaign in Afghanistan.
British Empire occupied Afghanistan in 1839 and brought Shah-shoja to the Afghan throne. As a result of Kabul people rebellion in November 1841, British army were forced to quit it; but again in November 21st 1878, occupied Afghanistan south and east and imposed “ Gandomak ” treaty on Amir Muhammad Yaqub-khan, making the Afghan Amir "virtually a feudatory of the British Crown"  and Afghanistan lost its independence.  
In 1839, The British signed Durand Line agreement with Amir Abdur Rahman, drawing  present-day Afghanistan boundaries with Pakistan. Pashtun tribes were located in both sides of this line.
As a result of 3rd Anglo-Afghanistan war, during Amanullah-khan period in 1919(1298 LHY), Afghanistan independence was recognized within the present-day boundaries.
In Tir 26th 1352 LHY (1973), monarchy regime of Zahir-Shah was ousted by Sardar Mohammad Daoud khan coup and republic regime was established. Daoud was assassinated in 1978 coup and Noor Taraki took power setting up a Marxist regime and  bloody crisis of Afghanistan began and it last till now.
As a result of Islamic Jihad (Holy War) development and the danger of Communist regime demise which was led by Hafizullah Amin, the Soviets launched a full scale invasion of Afghanistan and occupied it. During 14 years of the Soviets occupation an estimated one million and half Afghan lives were lost or disabled and more than 8 millions took refugees to the neighboring countries. Eventually as re result of Afghanistan people Islamic Jihad, the Soviets was forced to withdraw its troops in February15, 1989.
In April 1992 communist regime leading by Dr. Najibullah ousted and almost immediately after Mujahideen (Islamic resistance groups) formed their government, new round of internecine fighting began among the various militias.
In December 1994 Taliban group emerged in Kandahar and seized control of Kabul in September 1996. The emergence of the Taliban - originally a group of Islamic scholars - brought at least a measure of stability for two years after nearly two decades of conflict. But their extreme version of Islam attracted widespread criticism. The Taliban - drawn from the Pashtun majority, committed serious atrocities against various political groups and ethnic minorities of Afghanistan in center, north and west of the country and tied to impose an extreme interpretation of Islam based upon the rural Pashtun tribal code on the entire country. In control of about 90% of Afghanistan until late 2001, the Taliban were recognised as the legitimate government by only three countries: Pakistan, Saudia Arabia and UAE. They were at loggerheads with the international community over the presence on their soil of Osama bin Laden, accused by the US of masterminding the bombing of their embassies in Africa in 1998 and the attacks on the US on 11 September 2001. On Oct. 7, 2001 US and Britain began daily air strikes and missiles against Afghanistan and Kabul city collapsed when Taliban troops fled. Mr Rabbani’s government then, took power for the second time.
In December 2001, a United-Nation sponsored conference in Bonn, Germany was held which lasted 14 days. Under “Bonn Agreement” an Afghan interim authority was formed and took office in Kabul in Dec. 22, 2001 with Hamid Karzai as chairman.
In mid-June 2002 a nation wide “Loya Jirga” ( Ground Council) formed and decided on the structure of a transitional authority headed by president Hamid Karzai for two years.    
Constitutional Loya Jirga was held on Dec. 12, 2004 and after 22 days of discussion new constitutional law for Afghanistan was ratified under foreigner observers' pressure of which some new articles were added into it and its legitimacy underwent questioning.
On Oct. 9, 2004 Afghanistan held it first presidential election and Hamid Karzai was elected for a five-year term.
Immediately after Taliban dispose, different provinces of Afghanistan were under the control of local commanders and the authorities in Kabul, was able to exert little control beyond the capital. Gradually and  with aids of International Security Assistance Forces (ISAF) and America's alliances Kabul government could develop its control over other provinces. By the way, Taliban militias have risen to  fight against Kabul government and NATO forces, whom they call occupiers and they have developed their operations and influence in south and east provinces. Mr. Karzai' s government and NATO forces leading by America Have already failed to provide security in Afghanistan.
Since Taliban demise and foreign forces pitch in Afghanistan, Afghanistan's drugs industry makes up around 60% of the economy. The trade has boomed and the country is the world's leading producer of opium.   General Information
• Population: 26 million (UN, 2005)  • Capital and largest city: Kabul   
• Area: 652,225 sq km (251,773 sq miles)   
• Political Subdivision : 34 states ( provinces)    
• Total Common Boundaries length: 5529 Km  
     o  Common boundary with Iran (west): 936 Km          
     o  Common boundary with Turkmenistan (North): 744 Km         
     o  Common boundary with Uzbekistan (North): 137 Km         
     o  Common boundary with Tajikistan (North): 1206 Km         
     o  Common boundary with China (East): 76 Km         
     o  Common boundary with Pakistan (South): 2430 Km         
•  Major Cities: Herat, Kandahar, Mazar-e-Sharif, Jalal-abad
•  Major languages: Pashto, Dari (Persian)
•  Major religion: Islam (Hanafi Sunni, Jafari Shi'a and Ismaeilia Shi'a)
•  Life expectancy: 46 years (men), 46 years (women) (UN)
•  Monetary unit: 1 Afghani = 100 puls , 1 USD~ 50 Afghanis
•  Main exports: Fruit and nuts, carpets, wool, opium
•  GNI per capita: n/a
•  Internet domain: .af
•  International dialling code: +93   Leaders:
President: Hamid Karzai
Born in the southern Afghan town of Kandahar in 1957, Hamid Karzai studied in India and France. Exiled in Pakistan for much of the Soviet occupation and during Taleban rule, he was chosen as post-Taleban Afghanistan's interim leader in late 2001.
Parliament (house of the people) Speaker: Yunis Qanuni
House of the people is composed of various political factions including technocrats, seculars, Mujahideen groups, communists (USSR fond), old Taliban pneumatics and old Zahir-shah fans.
Senate (house of the elders) Speaker: Sibghatullah Mojaddedi
Minister of Foreign Affairs: Ranign Dadfar Spanta
Minister of Interior : Zarar Ahmad Muqbal
Finance minister: Anwar Ul-Haq Ahady
Defense minister: Abdul Rahim Wardak   Factions and Social Organizations:
Number of Parties with official license for activity: 86 factions
• Secular factions: about 34 factions
• Factions with communistic background: 29 factions
• Factions with Islamic tendencies: about 23 factions Number of social organizations with official license for activity: 765 organizations
Total number of parties and social organizations with or without official permit in Afghanistan inside and outside from 1284 LHY (1901) till 1386 (2007): more than 1210 items.   Press
Afghanistan's media were seriously restricted under Taleban rule. Radio Afghanistan was renamed Radio Voice of Shariah and reflected the Islamic fundamentalist values of the Taleban. TV was seen as a source of moral corruption and was banned.
Late in 2001, Afghan Radio resumed its casting programs after Taliban fall. Some days after, Afghanistan TV launched its programs. Possessing great freedom of speech, Afghanistan newspapers are not a lot. After Taliban oust, several Non-government radio and   TV stations have been inaugurated.
In 2004, Press Law was ratified by which criticizing Islam and other religions, was forbidden. Relays of foreign radio stations or stations funded from overseas are on the air in Kabul, including the BBC, Radio France Internationale, and US-funded broadcasts from Radio Free Europe, which uses the name Azadi Radio, and the Voice of America, Liberty Voice (From ISAF forces). BBC World Service is also available on FM and medium wave (AM) in other parts of Afghanistan. 
The government-sponsored daily press:
•  Hewad – (Pashtu Language)
•  Anis – Persian Language
•  Islah  – Persian and Pashtu Languages
•  Kabul Times - official, English-language pages
•  Ettefaghe Islam , Persian-language pages in Herat.  The non- government-sponsored daily press:
• Cheragh
• Arman-e-melli
• Vissa
• Sedaye bamdad
• Afghanistan 
• Rah-e- nejat
• Eradeh 
• Be sooye farad
• Taraghi
• Afghanistan Outlook (in English) Weeklies: •   Kabul Weekly - private, English-language pages
•   Payam-e Mojahed - Northern Alliance weekly
•   Eghtedar-e Melli
•   Panjareh
•   Mosharekat-e melli
•   Kellid
•   Mardom
•   Jaameh   Radio
 Radio Afghanistan - run by state broadcaster National Radio
 Radio Sobh Bekheir Afghanistan
 Radio Heart
 Radio Kandahar
   Radio Killid - private FM station, in Kabul and Herat
   Arman FM - private FM network, in Kabul and other cities
 Azad Afghan Radio - private, Kandahar
 Radio Fardad
 Radio Ariana   Television
•  National Television Afghanistan - run by state broadcaster (NRTA)
•  Tolo TV - leading private network, Kabul-based, provincial relays
•  Lemar TV - private, Pashto-language sister station of Tolo TV
•  Aina TV - private, based in northern city of Sheberghan
•  Ariana TV - private, Kabul-based, provincial relays
•  Afghan TV - private, Kabul
•  Balkh Province TV - local station, Mazar-e-Sharif
•  Herat Province TV - local station, Herat
•  Tamadon TV
• Shemshad TV
•  Nourin TV
•  Nour TV   News agencies
•  Bakhtar News Agency - state-run
•  Pajhwak Afghan News - private
•  Afghan Islamic Press - private, based in Peshawar, Pakistan
•  Seday-e Afghan  Press - private, based in Peshawar, Pakistan
•  Seday-e Afghan  Press - private, based in Peshawar, Pakistan     Lyrics to the National Anthem Article 20 of Afghanistan's constitution (adopted in January 2004) states that the National Anthem of Afghanistan must be in the Pashto language and that it must contain the phrase “Allahu Akbar” (God is Great). It must also mention the names of the ethnic groups in Afghanistan. The following was approved by the Afghan President in May 2006. Lyrics to the National Anthem Pashto  دا وطن افغانستان دی دا عزت د هر افغان دی
کور د سولی کور د توری هر بچی یی قهرمان دی
دا وطن د تولو کور دی د بلوچو د ازبکو
د پشتون او هزاره وو د ترکمنو د تاجکو
ورسره عرب، گوجر دی پامیریان، نورستانیان
براهوی دی، قزلباش دی هم ایماق، هم پشه ییان
دا هیواد به تل زلیژی لکه لمر پرشنه آسمان
په سینه کی د آسیا به لکه زره وی جاویدان
نوم د حق مودی رهبر وایو الله اکبر وایو الله اکبر     Transliteration Daa watan afghanistan do daa ezzat de har afghan di
Kor de soli kor de tori har bachi ye qahraman di
Daa watan di tolo kor di de balocho, de uzbako
De pashtoon aw hazarwoo de turkmano de tajeko
Worsara arab, gojar di pamirian, noristanian
Barahawi di, qizilbash di ham aimaq, ham pashaiyean
Daa hiwad ba til zaligi laka limar pa eshna aasman
Pa sina ki de asia laka zera wi jawidan
Noom de haq mo di rahbar wayoo Allah o Akbar, wayoo Allah o Akbar
    English Translation This land is Afghanistan - It is the pride of every Afghan
The land of peace, the land of the sword - Its sons are all brave
This is the country of every tribe - Land of Baluch, and Uzbeks
Pashtoons, and Hazaras - Turkman and Tajiks with them,
Arabs and Gojars, Pamirian, Nooristanis
Barahawi, and Qizilbash - Also Aimaq, and Pashaye
This Land will shine for ever - Like the sun in the blue sky
In the chest of Asia - It will remain as the heart for ever
We will follow the one God - We all say, Allah is great, we all say, Allah is great
    Officially permitted political parties No Party Title President President's Intellectual Tendency and political Background 1 Afghanistan Republicans Sebghatullah Sanjar Secularicstic tendency and Communistic background 2 National Unity Incitement of Aghanistan Soltan Mahmud Ghazi Secularicstic and ethnocentric tendency 3 Independence Party of Afghanistan Ghulam Farouq Najrabi National and Islamic tendency 4 National Solidarity of Afghan Youth Mohammad Jamil Karzai   5 Afghanistan National Unity Abdelrashid Jalili Communistic background and member of PDPA 6 Afghanistan National Unity of Islamic Tribes Mohammadshah Khoogiani Islamic and ethnocentric tendency 7 Work and Development of Afghanistan Zoolfaqar Omid Relation with Pakistanies Authorities 8 Afghanistan National Solidarity Movement Seyed ishaq Gilani Traditional Islamhc and liberalistic tendency 9 Afghanistan National Islamic Mahaz Pir seued ahmad Gilani Traditional Islamic, ethnocentric and liberalistic tendency 10 Afghanistan Liberty and Democracy Movement Abdelraghib Javid Koohestani Communistic background 11 Afghan Social Democrate ( Afghan Nation) Anwarolhaq Ahadi Social Democratic and ethnocentric tendency 12 Afghanistan People Felicity Mohammd zobeir Pruz Communistic tendency 13 Unit Afghanistan Mohammad vasel Rahimi Communistic background 14 Afghanistan Islamic Movement Mohammad ali Jawid Islamic fundamentalist with Jehadi background 15 Afghanistan National Unity Movement Mohammad Nadir Atash Communistic background 16 Afghanistan Human Rights and Detection Protection Biryalay Nosrati Secularistic tendency 17 Afghanistan National Party Abdulrashid Arian Communistic background 18 Afghanistan National Congress Abdellatif Pedram Secularistic tendency 19 Da Afghanistan Dasooli Ghourzang Gound Shanwaz Tanai Communistic background 20 Afghanistan People Islamic Movement Seyed Hossein Anwari Islamic tendency and Jehadi background 21 Afghaistan Islamic Justice Mohhamad Kabir Marzban Islamic tendency and Jehadi background 22 Afghanistan People Prophecy Nooraqa Rouini Secularistic tendency and Communistic background 23 Afghanistan People Welfare Miagol Vasiq Secularistic tendency and Communistic background 24 National Peace and Unity Abdelqadir Imami Secularistic tendency and Jehadi background 25 Afghanistan Understanding and Democracy Ahmad Shahin Secularistic tendency and Communistic background 26 Young Afghanistan Islamic Organization Seyed Jawad Hosseini Secularistic tendency 27 Afghanistan Islamic Tribes National Peace Abdelqahir Shariati Islamic and ethnocentric tendency and Jehadi background 28 Afghanistan National Unity Mohammad Karim Khalili Islamic and ethnocentric tendency and Jehadi background 29 Afghanistan People National Unity Hajimohammad Mohaqeq Secularistic and ethnocentric tendency and Jehadi background 30 Afghanistan Liberal Party Ajmal Soheil Liberalistic tendency 31 Afghanistan People Salvation Ostad Mohammad Zarif Islamic tendency 32 Afghanistan Solidarity Party Abdel Khaleq Neamat Communistic, Maoistic and ethnocentric tendency 33 Afghan Society for the Call to the Koran and Sunna Mowlavi Samiullah Najibi Salafīyyah and ethnocentric tendency 34 Afghanistan National Movement Ahmad Vali Masoud Liberal democratic and ethnocentric tendency 35 Afghanistan National Islamic Peace Shah Mahmud Poopalzai   36 Afghanistan People Ideal party Serajudin Zafari Secularistic and Communistic tendency 37 Afghanistan National Link Seyedmansoor Naderi Ismaili and Secularistic tendency 38 Afghanistan National and Islamic Felicity Mojammad Osman Salek Zadeh Islamic tendency and Jehadi background 39 Afghanistan Freedom Abdolmalik Secularistic and ethnocentric tendency and Communistic background 40 Afghanistan People Insurrection Party Seyed Zahir Ghaed Omulbiladi Secularistic and Communistic tendency 41 Afghanistan National Society of peace Activists Shamsulhagh Nouroshams Communistic tendency 42 Islamic Country Of Afghan Mohammad hasan Firuz Khalil Islamic and ethnocentric tendency 43 Afghanistan People liberals Feda Mohammad Ehsas Communistic and Maostic background 44 Afghanistan Incitement for Muslims Unity Wazir Mohammad Wahdat Islamic and ethnocentric tendency 45 Afghanistan Solidarity of Islamic Tribes Mohammad zarif Naseri Communistic background 46 Afghanistan Islamic National sobriety Qareh bik Izadyar Secularistic tendency and Jehadi background 47 Afghanistan National Progress Dr. Asef Baktash Communistic and Maoistic background 48 Afghanistan National Independence Taj Mohammad Wardak   49 Afghanistan Conduction National Front for Saving Sebghatullah Mojjaddedi National and Islamic tendency and Jehadi background 50 Afghanistan Islamic National Unity Mohamad Akbari Religious and ethnocentric tendency and Jehadi background 51 Afghanistan People Governing Movement Hayatullah Sobhani Liberal democratic tendency 52 Afghanistan National Islamic Motion Seyed Norulah Secularistic and ethnocentric tendency and Communistic background 53 Afghanistan Nation Islamic Unity Qurbanali Erfani Islamic foundamentalism tendency and Jehadi background 54 Afghanistan People Elites Abdelhamid Jawad Islamic and National tendency 55 Hiwad National Party Ghulam Mohammad Communistic background 56 Motherland Liberals Party Abdelhadi Dabir Islamic and National tendency 57 Afghanistan Motherland link Seyed Kamal Sadat Secularistic tendency 58 Islamic Society of Afghanistan Professor Rabbani Islamic fundamentalist. Ethnocentric tendency and Jehadi background 59 Afghanistan's Islamic Mission Organization   Islamic fundamentalist. Ethnocentric tendency and Jehadi background 60 National Unity Party   Communistic background 61 People's Party of Afghanistan Ahmad Shah Asar Liberal democratic tendency and Communistic background 62 National Stability Party Abdul Ra'uf   63 National c Fighters Party of Afghanistan Amanat Ningarhari Communistic and Maoistic background 64 Democratic Party of Afghanistan Abdul Kabir Ranjbar Communistic background 65 People’s Movement of the National Unity of Afghanistan (Da Afghanistan da Melli Wahdat Wolesi Tahreek) Abdul Hakim Noorzai Secularistic and ethnocentric tendency 66 National Sovereignty Party (Hizb-e-Iqtedar Melli) Sayyed Mustafa Kazimi Secularistic tendency and Jehadi background 67 New Afghanistan Party (Hezb-e-Afghanistan Naween) Mohammad Yunis Qanuni Secularistic tendency and Jehadi background 68 National Prosperity Party (Hizb-e Refah-e Melli) Mohammad Hasan Jahfari Islamic tendency 69 National Stance Party (Hizb-e-Melli Dareez)   Communistic background 70 Afghanistan's Welfare Party (Hizb-e Refah-e Afghanistan) Mir Mohammad Asef Za'ifi National and Islamic tendency 71 Afghanistan’s Islamic Nation Party (Hizb-e-Umat-e-Islami Afghanistan) Tooran (Captain) Noor Aqa Ahmadza Islamic tendency 72 Afghanistan’s National Islamic Party (Hizb-e-Melli Islami Afghanistan) Ruhullah Ludin   73 The People of Afghanistan’s Democratic Movement (Hizb-e-Junbish- Democracy Mardum-e-Afghanistan) Mohammad Sharif Nazari Secularistic tendency 74 Progressive Democratic Party of Afghanistan (Hizb-e-Mutaraqi Democaraat Afghanistan) Mohammad Wali Aria Western Social democratic tendency 75 Democratic Party of Afghanistan (Hizb-e-Democracy Afghanistan) Mohammad Tawoos Arab Secularistic and Communistic tendency and Maoistic background 76 Muslim People of Afghanistan Party (Hizb-e-Mardum-e-Muslman-e-Afghanistan) Bismillah Joyan   77 Hizullah-e-Afghanistan Qari Ahmad Ali Islamic tendency and Jehadi background 78 Islamic Party of Afghanistan (Hizb-e-Islami Afghanistan) Mohammad Khalid Farooqi Islamic fundamentalist. Ethnocentric tendency and Jehadi background 79 Comprehensive Movement of Democracy and Development of Afghanistan Party (Hizb-e-Nahzat Faragir Democracy wa Taraqi-e-Afghanistan) Sher Mohammad Bazgar Communistic tendency and Communistic background 80 Afghanistan Peoples’ Treaty Party (Hizb-e-Wolesi Tarhun Afghanistan) Sayyed Amir Tahseen   81 United Islamic Party of Afghanistan (Hizb-e-Mutahed Islami Afghanistan) Wahidullah Sabawoon Islamic fundamentalist 82 Islamic Movement of Afghanistan Party (Hizb-e-Nahzat-e-Melli Islami Afghanistan) Mohammad Mukhtar Mufleh   83 National and Islamic Sovereignty Movement Party of Afghanistan (Hizb-e-Eqtedar-e-Melli wa Islami Afghanistan) Engineer Ahmad Shah Ahmadzai Islamic fundamentalist. Ethnocentric tendency and Jehadi background 84 The Afghanistan’s Mujahid Nation’s Islamic Unity Movement (Da Afghanistan Mujahid Woles Yaowaali Islami Tahreek) Saeedullah Saeed   85 Unity Party of The People of Afghanistan Eng. Jahed   86 Afghan Social Democratic Party Ajmal Shjams Western Social democratic and ethnocentric tendency                   
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